Energy Sustainability for Large Buildings
What can be done to reduce energy consumption in large buildings?
The average commercial building wastes 30% of the energy it consumes, but it doesn’t have to. There are a number of no-cost and low-cost improvements buildings can make to reduce their energy consumption, including:
- Communication and education: Clearly define energy efficiency and educate employees/building occupants on their energy behaviors and how they can personally affect change; start internal initiatives to encourage lower energy consumption.
- Operations and maintenance: Conduct routine maintenance of facility systems, identifying any potential issues and correct them to ensure they are functioning efficiently.
- Lighting: Turn off lights when not in use, maximize daylight, and remove unnecessary lighting.
- Equipment: Utilize smart plugs or power management functions on electronic equipment, such as computers, monitors, and printers.
- Heating and cooling: Monitor and adjust thermostat with seasonal changes, regularly change HVAC filters, use shades/blinds to control direct sun heating and seal exterior doors and windows when utilizing HVAC.
In addition, there are a number of extensive changes an eco-friendly building can make to further reduce its energy consumption, including:
- Operations and maintenance: Retrofit building with more efficient systems, implement energy audits to identify problem areas, and routinely monitor and repair systems to ensure they function as intended.
- Lighting: Retrofit buildings with LED lighting and install light sensors to automatically turn off when rooms are not in use.
- Equipment: Upgrade to Energy Star® certified electronics.
- Heating and cooling: Upgrade and maintain heating/cooling equipment.
How can I find out how efficient my building is?
In terms of energy efficiency, buildings can utilize the voluntary EPA program, Energy Star®. Energy Star® is a government established program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants caused by inefficient energy use. The Energy Star® score is a measure of how well a building performs relative to similar buildings when normalized for climate and operational characteristics. The score is based on a scale of 1 to 100, with 1 representing the worst performing buildings and 100 representing the best performing, eco-friendly buildings. Scores of 50 indicate that the building is performing at the industry average, while a 75 or higher indicates that a building may be able to earn an Energy Star® label for its high performance.
To determine this score, Owners can utilize the EPA’s Energy Star Portfolio Manager®. It allows Owners to input their utility data to measure and track their buildings’ energy and water consumption, as well as their greenhouse gas emissions. The tool can be utilized for any building, anywhere. It even helps benchmark performance against the whole portfolio of buildings.
Once the energy efficiency score of a school has been established, it will be easier to determine which areas are in need of improvement. Comparing power consumption rates and costs of a facility to the national average will show whether or not the current state of the school building is reaching its highest energy efficiency potential.
How energy-efficient are schools?
According to Energy Star Portfolio Manager®, schools can have an Energy Use Intensity (EUI) ranging from less than 50 to more than 500 kBtu/ft2. Energy Star's portfolio manager provides a 100-point scale to compare the energy efficiency of buildings in the United States. Schools that receive a score of 75 or above are considered highly efficient. According to Energy Star’s report, schools that rank in the bottom 5% of the scale consume four times the amount of energy of highly efficient schools.
70% of that energy is used for lighting, heating/cooling, water heating, and plug loads (computers, printers, office equipment, etc.). Furthermore, school districts nationwide are spending $8 billion annually on energy costs, making it second only to personnel costs in terms of the overall budget. It is estimated that $2 billion of that spending can be saved by improving energy efficiency in K-12 schools, which is equivalent to the cost of nearly 40 million new textbooks.
There are certain features of a green building that can have a strong impact on the amount of energy a school or large facility consumes. Depending on the location, some schools have to run heating and cooling systems for longer periods of time than others, which greatly increases their energy consumption. Schools with 2 or more computers per 1,000 square feet also require more power, as do facilities with multiple walk-in refrigerators to service large cafeterias.
The Energy Star Scoring system takes these features, as well as the building’s size, into account when determining the energy efficiency score. Schools are compared to an expected EUI based on the building’s square footage and appliances. If the building uses less than what is expected, it is ranked higher on the scale.
In terms of energy efficiency, public schools have room to improve. But what are the benefits of energy efficiency upgrades?
- Reduced Energy Costs: Schools can reduce their energy costs by as much as 30% in existing facilities by switching to energy efficient appliances, lighting fixtures, and HVAC systems.
- Reduced Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions: Lowering dependency on fossil fuels for electricity can decrease CO2 emissions that contribute to air pollution.
- Improved Learning Environment: Indoor air quality and thermal comfort can be improved with ventilation; visual comfort can be improved with more evenly distributed lighting, and noise levels from building systems can be lowered to provide less distraction.
- Enhanced Educational Opportunities: Energy efficient school buildings can aid with energy and environmental curriculum, providing hands-on opportunities for students to learn about the benefits of sustainable energy. Promoting campus energy projects to students gives them a unique, hands-on learning opportunity about energy consumption and efficiency. Classroom solar curriculum is also something to consider for K-12 school installed solar projects.
- Reduced Waste and Increased Recycling: Schools and large facilities produce copious amounts of waste that are typically dumped into landfills. The cost of a waste management system for a school can be in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, as most schools generate between 48 to 99 pounds of waste per student every year. Implementing better recycling programs and reducing waste can save schools thousands of dollars on waste management costs.
- Tax Credits and Incentive Programs: Many state governments offer incentives to schools, buildings, and residential homes to improve their energy efficiency. Some states also offer rebate programs, funding and loan options, and grants for schools to implement energy efficiency projects.
In addition to becoming more energy-efficient, it is also important that building owners begin to rely on sustainable energy sources as well. This kind of power comes from renewable sources, such as solar energy, wind power, or hydroelectricity. These power resources are produced naturally from the earth, so its supply will not run out or diminish due to consumption of oil and coal does. The cost of renewable energy has been steadily declining over the years. Photovoltaic electricity, which is produced by solar power, has decreased by 73% since 2010. Experts expect the cost of renewable energy to continue to fall and become more cost-effective than fossil fuels in the near future.
The combination of energy efficiency and green construction the way for better, safer, and cleaner schools. By reducing the amount of energy consumed, school facilities can cut their power costs significantly. The money saved from these efficiency projects can then be used for other purposes, like educational programs or purchasing new equipment. Switching to sustainable power sources, such as solar power or wind energy, can reduce a school’s carbon footprint and negative impact on the environment.
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